Last Updated: January 2014
A precursor of this fact sheet, “Wind Turbine Interactions with Birds, Bats, and their Habitats: A Summary of Research Results and Priority Questions,” was first produced by the Wildlife Workgroup of the National Wind Coordinating Collaborative (NWCC) in 2004 and then updated in 2010. In January 2012 the American Wind Wildlife Institute began facilitating the NWCC, and this updated fact sheet continues the tradition of previous fact sheets in reflecting the latest assessment of wind energy impacts on wildlife based on a review of the available literature.
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Ferrer M, de Lucas M, Janss GFE, Casado E, Muñoz AR, Bechard MJ, and Calabuig CP. 2012. Weak relationship between risk assessment studies and recorded mortality in wind farms. Journal of Applied Ecology 49(1): 38-46.
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Johnson GD and Erickson WP. 2010. Avian, bat, and habitat cumulative impacts associated with wind energy development in the Columbia Plateau Ecoregion of eastern Washington and Oregon. Prepared for Klickitat County Planning Department, 40 pages.
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Kuvlesky WP, Brennan LA, Morrison ML, Boydston KK, Ballard BM, and Bryant FC. 2007. Wind energy development and wildlife conservation: Challenges and opportunities. The Journal of Wildlife Management 71(8): 2487-2498.
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Loss SR, Will T, and Marra PP. 2013a. Estimates of bird collision mortality at wind facilities in the contiguous United States. Biological Conservation 168: 201-209.
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Mabee TJ and Cooper BA. 2004. Nocturnal bird migration in northeastern Oregon and southeastern Washington. Northwestern Naturalist 85(2): 39-47.
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(NAS) National Academy of Sciences. 2007. Environmental impacts of wind-energy projects. The National Academies Press, Washington, DC.
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