This document summarizes publicly available information about the adverse impacts of land-based wind power on wildlife in North America and the status of our knowledge regarding how to avoid or minimize these impacts.
Suggested Citation for this Page: American Wind Wildlife Institute (AWWI). 2018. Wind turbine interactions with wildlife and their habitats: a summary of research results and priority questions. Viewed [DATE] at <[HYPERLINK]>.
In recognition of the active work in this field of research, the information on this page is updated and undergoes expert review on an annual basis to incorporate new results as they become publicly available. For a summary of substantial changes made for the June 2017 version, please click here. To download the 2016 version, click here. To download the 2015 version, click here. To download the 2014 version, click here.
Literature citations supporting the information presented are denoted in parentheses; full citations can be found below.
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Arnett EB, Hein CD, Schirmacher MR, Huso MMP, and Szewczak JM. 2013a. Evaluating the effectiveness of an ultrasonic acoustic deterrent for reducing bat fatalities at wind turbines. PloS One 8(6): e65794.
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Carrete M, Sanchez-Zapata J, Benitez J, et al. 2012. Mortality at wind-farms is positively related to large-scale distribution and aggregation in griffon vultures. Biological Conservation 145(1): 102-108.
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Cryan P and Barclay R. 2009. Causes of bat fatalities at wind turbines: hypotheses and predictions. Journal of Mammalogy 90(6): 1330-1340.
Cryan P, Gorresen P, Hein C, Schirmacher M, Diehl R, Huso M, Hayman D, Fricker P, Bonaccorso F, Johnson D, Heist K, and Dalton D. 2014. Behavior of bats at wind turbines. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 111(42): 15126-15131.
Cryan PM, Jameson JW, Baerwald EF, Willis CKR, Barclay RMR, Snider EA, and Chrichton EG. 2012. Evidence of late-summer mating readiness and early sexual maturation in migratory tree-roosting bats found dead at wind turbines. PLoS One 7(10): e47586.
Cryan PM. 2008. Mating behavior as a possible cause of bat fatalities at wind turbines. The Journal of Wildlife Management 72(3): 845-849.
Dahl E, Bevanger K, Nygard T, Roskaft E, and Stokke BG. 2012. Reduced breeding success in white-tailed eagles at Smøla windfarm, western Norway, is caused by mortality and displacement. Biological Conservation 145(1): 79-85.
de Lucas M, Ferrer M, Bechard M, and Muñoz MJ. 2012. Griffon vulture mortality at wind farms in southern Spain: Distribution of fatalities and active mitigation measures. Biological Conservation 147(1): 184-189.
Ennen J, Lovich J, Meyer K, Bjurlin C, and Arundel TR. 2012. Nesting ecology of a population of Gopherus agassizii at a utility-scale wind energy facility in southern California. Copeia 2: 222-228.
Erickson W, Wolfe M, Bay K, Johnson D, and Gehring JL. 2014. A comprehensive analysis of small-passerine fatalities from collision with turbines at wind energy facilities. PLoS ONE 9(9): e107491.
Everaert J. 2014. Collision risk and micro-avoidance rates of birds with wind turbines in Flanders. Bird Study 61(2): 220-230.
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Ferrer M, de Lucas M, Janss GFE, Casado E, Muñoz AR, Bechard MJ, and Calabuig CP. 2012. Weak relationship between risk assessment studies and recorded mortality in wind farms. Journal of Applied Ecology 49(1): 38-46.
Foley J, Clifford D, Castle K, Cryan P, and Ostfeld RS. 2011. Investigating and managing the rapid emergence of white-nose syndrome, a novel, fatal, infectious disease of hibernating bats. Conservation Biology 25(2): 223-231.
Frick WF, Pollock JF, Hicks A, Langwig K, Reynolds DS, Turner G, Buthowski C, and Kunz TH. 2010. An emerging disease causes regional population collapse of a common North American bat species. Science 329(5992): 679-682.
Frick WF, Baerwald EF, Pollock JF, Barclay RMR, Szymanski JA, Weller TJ, Russell AL, Loeb SC, Medellin RA, and McGuire LP. 2017. Fatalities at wind turbines may threaten population viability of a migratory bat. Biological Conservation 209: 172-177.
Graff BJ, Jenks JA, Stafford JD, Jensen KC, Grovenburg TW. 2016. Assessing spring direct mortality to avifauna from wind energy facilities in the Dakotas. The Journal of Wildlife Management 80(4):736-745.
Grodsky S, Behr M, Gendler A, Drake D, Dieterle BD, Rudd RJ, and Walrath NL. 2011. Investigating the causes of death for wind turbine-associated bat fatalities. Journal of Mammalogy 92(5): 917-925.
Gue CT, Walker J, Mehl K, Gleason JS, Stephens SE, Loesch CR, Reynolds RE, and Goodwin BJ. 2013. The effects of a large-scale wind farm on breeding season survival of female mallards and blue-winged teal in the Prairie Pothole Region. The Journal of Wildlife Management 77(7): 1360-1371.
Hatchett E, Hale A, Bennett V, and Karsten K. 2013. Wind turbines do not negatively affect nest success in the Dickcissel (Spiza americana). The Auk 130(3): 520-528.
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Hein CD, Gruver J, and Arnett EB. 2013. Relating pre-construction bat activity and post-construction bat fatality to predict risk at wind energy facilities: a synthesis. A report for National Renewable Energy Laboratory. Bat Conservation International, Austin, TX, USA.
Hoover S and Morrison M. 2005. Behavior of red-tailed hawks in a wind turbine development. The Journal of Wildlife Management 69(1): 150-159.
Horn J, Arnett E, and Kunz T. 2008. Behavioral responses of bats to operating wind turbines. The Journal of Wildlife Management 72(1): 123-132.
Hunt WG, Wiens JD, Law PR, Fuller MR, Hunt TL, Driscoll DE, and Jackman RE. 2017. Quantifying the demographic cost of human-related mortality to a raptor population. PloS ONE 12(2): e0172232.
Hunt WG, McClure C, Allison TD. 2015. Do Raptors React to Ultraviolet Light? Journal of Raptor Research 49(3): 342-343.
Huso M, Dalthorp D, Miller TJ, and Bruns D. 2016. Wind energy development: methods to assess bird and bat fatality rates post-construction. Human-Wildlife Interactions 10(1): 62-70.
ICF International. 2016. Final report Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area bird fatality study, monitoring years 2005-2013. Prepared for Alameda County Community Development Agency, Hayward, CA. ICF 00904.08. ICF, Sacramento, CA, U.S.A.
Jain A, Koford R, Hancock A, and Zenner GG. 2011. Bat mortality at a northern Iowa wind resource area. The American Midland Naturalist 165: 185-200.
Johnson G, Erickson W, Strickland M, Shepherd M, Shepherd D, and Sarappo S. 2002. Collision mortality of local and migrant birds at a large-scale wind-power development on Buffalo Ridge, Minnesota. Wildlife Society Bulletin 30: 879-887.
Jones K, Purvis A, and Gittleman J. 2003. Biological correlates of extinction risks in bats. The American Naturalist 161(4): 601-614.
Katzner T, Brandes D, Miller T, Lanzone M, Maisonneuve C, Tremblay JA, Hulvihill R, and Merovich GT. 2012. Topography drives migratory flight altitude of golden eagles: implications for on-shore wind energy development. Journal of Applied Ecology 49(5): 1178-1186.
Kerlinger P, Gehring JL, Erickson WP, Curry R, Jain A, and Guarnaccia J. 2010. Night migrant fatalities and obstruction lighting at wind turbines in North America. The Wilson Journal of Ornithology 122(4): 744-754.
Kingsley A and Whittam B. 2007. Wind turbines and birds: a background review for environmental assessment. Prepared for Environment Canada/Canadian Wildlife Service. Bird Studies Canada.
Korstian JM, Hale AM, Bennett VJ, and Williams DA. 2013. Advances in sex determination in bats and its utility in wind-wildlife studies. Molecular Ecology Resources 13: 776-780.
Korstian JM, Hale AM, Williams DA. 2015. Genetic diversity, historic population size, and population structure in two North American tree bats. Journal of Mammalogy 96(5): 972-980.
Kunz TH, Arnett EB, Erickson WP, Hoar AR, Johnson GD, Larkin RP, Strickland MD, Thresher RW, and Tuttle MD. 2007. Ecological impacts of wind energy development on bats: questions, research needs, and hypotheses. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 5(6): 315-324.
Kuvlesky WP, Brennan LA, Morrison ML, Boydston KK, Ballard BM, and Bryant FC. 2007. Wind energy development and wildlife conservation: Challenges and opportunities. The Journal of Wildlife Management 71(8): 2487-2498.
LeBeau CW, Johnson GD, Holloran MJ, Beck JL, Nielson RM, Kauffman ME, Rodemaker EJ, and McDonald TL. 2017a. Greater sage-grouse habitat selection, survival, and wind energy infrastructure. The Journal of Wildlife Management 81(4): 690-711.
Lebeau CW, Beck JL, Johnson GD, Nielson RM, Holloran MJ, Gerow KG, and McDonald TL. 2017b. Greater sage-grouse male lek counts relative to a wind energy development. Wildlife Society Bulletin 41(1): 17-26.
Loesch C, Walker J, Reynolds R, Gleason JS, Niemuth ND, Stephens SE, and Erickson MA. 2013. Effect of wind energy development on breeding duck densities in the Prairie Pothole region. The Journal of Wildlife Management 77(3): 587-598.
Longcore T, Rich C, Mineau P, MacDonald B, Bert DG, Sullivan LM, and Drake D. 2012. An estimate of avian mortality at communication towers in the United States and Canada. PLoS One 7(4): e34025.
Loss SR, Will T, and Marra PP. 2013a. Estimates of bird collision mortality at wind facilities in the contiguous United States. Biological Conservation 168: 201-209.
Loss SR, Will T, and Marra, PP. 2013b. The impact of free-ranging domestic cats on wildlife of the United States. Nature Communications 4: 1396.
Loss SR, Will T, Loss SS, and Marra PP. 2014a. Bird-building collisions in the United States: Estimates of annual mortality and species vulnerability. The Condor 116(1): 8-23.
Loss SR, Will T, and Marra PP. 2014b. Estimation of bird-vehicle collision mortality on US roads. The Journal of Wildlife Management 78(5): 763-771.
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Lovich J, Ennen J, Mandrak S, Meyer K, Loughran C, Bjurlin C, Arundel T, Turner W, Jones C, and Groenendaal AM. 2011. Effects of wind energy production on growth, demography, and survivorship of a desert tortoise (Gopherus agassizii) population in southern California with comparisons to natural populations. Herpetological Conservation and Biology 6(2): 161-174.
Mabee TJ and Cooper BA. 2004. Nocturnal bird migration in northeastern Oregon and southeastern Washington. Northwestern Naturalist 85(2): 39-47.
Mabee TJ, Cooper BA, Plissner JH, and Young D. 2006. Nocturnal bird migration over an Appalachian ridge at a proposed wind power project. Wildlife Society Bulletin 34(3): 682-690.
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Piorkowski M and O’Connell T. 2010. Spatial pattern of summer bat mortality from collisions with wind turbines in mixed-grass prairie. The American Midland Naturalist 164(2): 260-269.
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